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The creation of the park was part of the effort of the Federal Government's environmental agencies to elevate the protected area in the Savannah . At the time of its creation, just over 2.5% of the biome it was protected in federal and state conservation units. According to the direction of ecosystems of the IBAMA - Brazilian Institute for the Environment and Renewable Natural Resources, the pressure for new deforestation driven by charcoal and the opening of new fronts for agriculture is very strong, as it is a race against time to save large remnants.
The region that is now sheltered within the National park it is extremely rich in species of animals and plants, not to mention the high tourist potential due to the natural beauty of Chapada das Mesas. The Federal Government's plans included the creation of new protected areas in Maranhão, forming a "mosaic" with state and federal parks and reserves and indigenous lands. The creation of the park had been debated and evaluated since 2004, but gained momentum in 2005, with the carrying out of field studies that proved the ecological, social, economic and cultural value of the region.
Its name originates from its plateaus, which resemble the shape of stone tables, through its sandstone rock walls formed millions of years ago.
Created in 2005, the Chapada das Mesas National Park is composed of forests of buritizais, sertões, relief of red plateaus, comprising a set of curious rock formations, canyons, caves and waterfalls.
The waterfalls that stand out are São Romão and Cachoeira da Prata, São Romão has the largest volume of water in the region. These waterfalls are still little explored, due to the difficulty of traveling to them, which has to be done with the help of local guides and 4x4 trucks. Other attractions are the trekking to Morro das Figuras (with rock inscriptions) and ecological trails, such as Morro do Chapéu.
Pedra Caída is a 12,000 ha private complex managed by the PIPES company, its interior has a variety of waterfalls. The main one, named sanctuary, drops from a height of 46 meters. The place has a cable car and a heliport and also offers the possibility to practice various extreme sports such as rappel and zipline.
The Morro do Chapéu is one of the highest point of the Chapada das Mesas. O trekking to Morro do Chapéu it is a 365 meter climb over sandstone rock, requiring physical preparation and skill from practitioners.